How Children Succeed: Grit, Curiosity, and the Hidden Power of Character

by Mariner Books

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  • Mariner Books
  • Q&A with Paul Tough

    Paul Tough Q. What made you want to write How Children Succeed?

    A. In 2008, I published my first book, Whatever It Takes, about Geoffrey Canada and the Harlem Children’s Zone. I spent
    five years reporting that book, but when I finished it, I realized I still had a lot of questions about what really
    happens in childhood. How Children Succeed is an attempt to answer those questions, which for many of us are big and
    mysterious and central in our lives: Why do certain children succeed while other children fail? Why is it, exactly, that
    poor children are less likely to succeed, on average, than middle-class children? And most important, what can we all do
    to steer more kids toward success?

    Q. Where did you go to find the answers?

    A. My reporting for this book took me all over the country, from a pediatric clinic in a low-income San Francisco
    neighborhood to a chess tournament in central Ohio to a wealthy private school in New York City. And what I found as I
    reported was that there is a new and groundbreaking conversation going on, out of the public eye, about childhood and
    success and failure. It is very different than the traditional education debate. There are economists working on this,
    neuroscientists, psychologists, medical doctors. They are often working independently from one another. They don’t
    always coordinate their efforts. But they’re beginning to find some common ground, and together they’re reaching some
    interesting and important conclusions.

    Q. A lot of your reporting for this book was in low-income neighborhoods. Overall, what did you learn about kids
    growing up in poverty?

    A. A lot of what we think we know about the effect of poverty on a child’s development is just plain wrong. It’s
    certainly indisputable that growing up in poverty is really hard on children. But the conventional wisdom is that the
    big problem for low-income kids is that they don’t get enough cognitive stimulation early on. In fact, what seems to
    have more of an effect is the chaotic environments that many low-income kids grow up in and the often stressful
    relationships they have with the adults around them. That makes a huge difference in how children’s brains develop, and
    scientists are now able to trace a direct route from those early negative experiences to later problems in school,
    health, and behavior.

    The problem is that science isn’t yet reflected in the way we run our schools and operate our social safety net. And
    that’s a big part of why so many low-income kids don’t do well in school. We now know better than ever what kind of help
    they need to succeed in school. But very few schools are equipped to deliver that help.

    Q. Many readers were first exposed to your reporting on character through your article in the New York Times Magazine
    in September 2011, which was titled "What If the Secret to Success Is Failure?" How does failure help us succeed?

    A. That’s an idea that I think was best expressed by Dominic Randolph, the head of the Riverdale Country School, an
    exclusive private school in the Bronx where they’re now doing some interesting experiments with teaching character.
    Here’s how he put it: "The idea of building grit and building self-control is that you get that through failure. And in
    most highly academic environments in the United States, no one fails anything."

    That idea resonated with a lot of readers. I don’t think it’s quite true that failure itself helps us succeed. In fact,
    repeated failures can be quite devastating to a child’s development. What I think is important on the road to success is
    learning to deal with failure, to manage adversity. That’s a skill that parents can certainly help their children
    develop--but so can teachers and coaches and mentors and neighbors and lots of other people.

    Q. How did writing this book affect you as a parent?

    A. My wife and I became parents for the first time just as I started reporting this book, and our son Ellington is now
    three. Those are crucial years in a child’s development, and I spent a lot of them reading papers on the infant brain
    and studies on attachment and trauma and stress hormones, trying not to get too overwhelmed.

    In the end, though, this research had a surprising effect: it made me more relaxed as a parent. When Ellington was
    born, I was very much caught up in the idea of childhood as a race--the faster a child develops skills, the better he
    does on tests, the better he’ll do in life. Having done this reporting, I’m less concerned about my son’s reading and
    counting ability. Don’t get me wrong, I still want him to know that stuff. But I think he’ll get there in time. What I’m
    more concerned about is his character--or whatever the right synonym is for character when you’re talking about a
    three-year-old. I want him to be able to get over disappointments, to calm himself down, to keep working at a puzzle
    even when it’s frustrating, to be good at sharing, to feel loved and confident and full of a sense of belonging. Most
    important, I want him to be able to deal with failure.

    That’s a difficult thing for parents to give their children, since we have deep in our DNA the urge to shield our kids
    from every kind of trouble. But what we’re finding out now is that in trying to protect our children, we may actually be
    harming them. By not giving them the chance to learn to manage adversity, to cope with failure, we produce kids who have
    real problems when they grow up. Overcoming adversity is what produces character. And character, even more than IQ, is
    what leads to real and lasting success.


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