On Thursday, July 13, 1995, Chicagoans awoke to a blistering day in which the temperature would reach 106 degrees. The
heat index, which measures how the temperature actually feels on the body, would hit 126 degrees by the time the day was
over. Meteorologists had been warning residents about a two-day heat wave, but these temperatures did not end that soon.
When the heat wave broke a week later, city streets had buckled; the records for electrical use were shattered; and
power grids had failed, leaving residents without electricity for up to two days. And by July 20, over seven hundred
people had perished-more than twice the number that died in the Chicago Fire of 1871, twenty times the number of those
struck by Hurricane Andrew in 1992—in the great Chicago heat wave, one of the deadliest in American history.
Heat waves in the United States kill more people during a typical year than all other natural disasters combined. Until
now, no one could explain either the overwhelming number or the heartbreaking manner of the deaths resulting from the
1995 Chicago heat wave. Meteorologists and medical scientists have been unable to account for the scale of the trauma,
and political officials have puzzled over the sources of the city's vulnerability. In Heat Wave, Eric Klinenberg takes
us inside the anatomy of the metropolis to conduct what he calls a "social autopsy," examining the social, political,
and institutional organs of the city that made this urban disaster so much worse than it ought to have been.
Starting with the question of why so many people died at home alone, Klinenberg investigates why some neighborhoods
experienced greater mortality than others, how the city government responded to the crisis, and how journalists,
scientists, and public officials reported on and explained these events. Through a combination of years of fieldwork,
extensive interviews, and archival research, Klinenberg uncovers how a number of surprising and unsettling forms of
social breakdown—including the literal and social isolation of seniors, the institutional abandonment of poor
neighborhoods, and the retrenchment of public assistance programs—contributed to the high fatality rates. The human
catastrophe, he argues, cannot simply be blamed on the failures of any particular individuals or organizations. For when
hundreds of people die behind locked doors and sealed windows, out of contact with friends, family, community groups,
and public agencies, everyone is implicated in their demise.
As Klinenberg demonstrates in this incisive and gripping account of the contemporary urban condition, the widening
cracks in the social foundations of American cities that the 1995 Chicago heat wave made visible have by no means
subsided as the temperatures returned to normal. The forces that affected Chicago so disastrously remain in play in
America's cities, and we ignore them at our peril.
Heat Wave: A Social Autopsy of Disaster in Chicago (Illinois)