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Backwards and Forwards A Technical Manual for Reading Plays
The best-selling script analysis book for thirty-five years
Considered an essential text since its publication thirty-five years ago, this guide for students and practitioners of
both theater and literature complements, rather than contradicts or repeats, traditional methods of literary analysis of
Ball developed his method during his work as literary director at the Guthrie Theater, building his guide on the crafts
playwrights of every period and style use to make their plays stageworthy. The text is full of tools for students and
practitioners to use as they investigate plot, character, theme, exposition, imagery, conflict, theatricality, and the
other crucial parts of the superstructure of a play. Also included are guides for discovering what the playwright
considers a play’ s most important elements, thus permitting interpretation based on the foundation of the play rather
than its details.
Using Shakespeare’s Hamlet as illustration, Ball assures a familiar base for clarifying script-reading techniques as
well as exemplifying the kinds of misinterpretation readers can fall prey to by ignoring the craft of the playwright. Of
immense utility to those who want to put plays on the stage (actors, directors, designers, production specialists)
Backwards & Forwards is also a fine playwriting manual because the structures it describes are the primary tools of the